Learning physics and chemistry easily and freely - Science for elementary school, middle school and high school

Free online chemistry lesson for elementary school, middle school and high school.


Atoms and chemical reactions

Chemical transformation

A chemical transformation is a process during which some substances disappear and new substances are formed.

A chemical transformation can be described by a simple word equation:
- Substances which are consumed during a chemical transformation are called reactants.
- Substances that are formed in a chemical transformation are called products.

Example: the combustion of carbon.
Carbon and dioxygen disappear therefore they are reactants.
Carbon dioxide is formed therefore it is a product.

Simple word equation for the combustion of carbon;
                     Carbon   +    Dioxygen        →      Carbon dioxide
                             Reactants                                                     Products
General rules for writing a simple word equation:
- The names of reactants are indicated on the left and separated by a + sign.
- The names of products are indicated on the right separated by a + sign.
- The names of those reagents and products are separated by an arrow. 

Comment: the + sign means "reacts with" and arrow "to give". Then simpe word equation should be read: "Carbon and dioxygen react to give carbon dioxide".

Science class

Mechanics lessons

Water on Earth
Changes of state in the nature: the water cycle
Water in human body
Test for water
Properties of water in different states

States of matter

States of matter and its changes
Boiling water
Water: freezing and melting
Changes of state: mass and volume
Molecules in different states of matter

Mixtures and solutions

Heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures
Vaporization of water
Dissolving a solid in water
Conservation of mass on dissolving
Miscibility in water

Mass and volume

Volume and its units
Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder
Mass and its units
Measuring the mass of a liquid
Mass of a liter of water
Volumetric mass density

Air and atmosphere

Earth's atmosphere protect us
Threats to the Earth's atmosphere
Composition of air
Air and life

Atoms and molecules

Molecules in mixtures and pure substances
Molecules and states of matter
Composition of molecules
Constituents of the atoms
The electrical neutrality of the atom


Basics of combustion
The combustion of carbon
The combustion of butane

Atoms and chemical reactions

Chemical reactions
Chemical equations
Law of conservation of mass
Chemical synthesis


Most common metals
How to distinguish metals ?

Corrosion of metals
Electrical conductivity of solid materials
Electrons and free electrons
Electric current in metals


The conductivity of aqueous solutions
Aqueous solutions and ions
The direction of movement of ions
Formation of ions
Tests for ions

Acidic and basic solutions

pH of aqueous solutions
Ions in acidic and basic solutions
Dilution of acids and bases
Composition of hydrochloric acid
Chemical reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid

Electrochemical cells and chemical energy

Chemical reaction beteween a copper sulphate solution and zinc
Copper sulfate and zinc battery
Basics of electrochemical cell


©2021 Physics and chemistry